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The importance of gmo awareness to avoid health risk factors and allergies

Revised 2012 Nov 16; Accepted 2012 Nov 19. Abstract Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms. The principal transgenic crops grown commercially in field are herbicide and insecticide resistant soybeans, corn, cotton and canola.

There are bananas that produce human vaccines against infectious diseases such as hepatitis B, fish that mature more quickly, fruit and nut trees that yield years earlier and plants that produce new plastics with unique properties. Technologies for genetically modifying foods offer dramatic promise for meeting some areas of greatest challenge for the 21st century. Like all new technologies, they also pose some risks, both known and unknown.

Controversies and public concern surrounding GM foods and crops commonly focus on human and environmental safety, labelling and consumer choice, intellectual property rights, ethics, food security, poverty reduction and environmental conservation.

This review will also address some major concerns about the safety, environmental and ecological risks and health hazards involved with GM foods and recombinant technology. Genetically modified foods, Genetically engineered foods, Transgenic foods, Food safety, Allergenic foods, Public concerns Introduction Scientists first discovered in 1946 that DNA can be transferred between organisms Clive 2011.

Genetically modified foods: safety, risks and public concerns—a review

It is now known that there are several mechanisms for DNA transfer and that these occur in nature on a large scale, for example, it is a major mechanism for antibiotic resistance in pathogenic bacteria. The first genetically modified GM plant was produced in 1983, using an antibiotic-resistant tobacco plant. China was the first country to commercialize a transgenic crop in the early 1990s with the introduction of virus resistant tobacco. The modification allowed the tomato to delay ripening after picking.

Health Risks

In 1995, few transgenic crops received marketing approval. A total of 35 approvals had been granted to commercially grow 8 transgenic crops and one flower crop of carnations with 8 different traits in 6 countries plus the EU till 1996 Clive 1996.

Currently, there are a number of food species in which a genetically modified version exists Johnson 2008. Some of the foods that are available in the market include cotton, soybean, canola, potatoes, eggplant, strawberries, corn, tomatoes, lettuce, cantaloupe, carrots etc. GM products which are currently in the pipeline include medicines and vaccines, foods and food ingredients, feeds and fibres.

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Locating genes for important traits, such as those conferring insect resistance or desired nutrients-is one of the most limiting steps in the process. In instances, the product is directly consumed as food, but in most of the cases, crops that have been genetically modified are sold as commodities, which are further processed into food ingredients. Fruits and vegetables Papaya has been developed by genetic engineering which is ring spot virus resistant and thus enhancing the productivity.

Its single-handed savior was a breed engineered to be resistant to the virus.

  1. They were able to demonstrate that the transgene would spread in natural populations, despite low juvenile viability, if transgenes have sufficient high positive effects on other fitness components.
  2. These sources may be less reliable than scientific experts whom consumers trust more to present the facts.
  3. We have been unable to find systematic data on the incidence, in fish GMOs, of effects such as those described by Devlin et al.
  4. Thus, 15 percent escapes for Atlantic salmon, escapes of 150 000 salmon and 50 000 trout in Chile and catch statistics for Atlantic salmon off Norway in which 15? Mutations in DNA are closely tied to cancer and other diseases, and thus mutagenic substances can have dire effects on human health.
  5. To address buildup of toxicity over time, this group monitored the GMO-eating rats not only for the lifetime of one generation, but also three additional generations. It is clear that escapes of these magnitudes pose considerable problems and it is not surprising that in some parts of Norway fish of farmed origin represent a majority of the animals fished Saegrov et al.

This was brought to market by Monsanto in the late 1990s, developed for the fast food market. This was forced to withdraw from the market in 2001as the fast food retailers did not pick it up and thereby the food processors ran into export problems. Reports say that currently no transgenic potatoes are marketed for the purpose of human consumption. This GM potato was made resistant to late blight by adding two resistance genes, blb1 and blb2, which was originated from the Mexican wild potato Solanum bulbocastanum.

Vegetable oil is sold to consumers as cooking oil, margarine and shortening, and is used in prepared foods. Vegetable oil is made of triglycerides extracted from plants or seeds and then refined, and may be further processed via hydrogenation to turn liquid oils into solids.

The refining process removes nearly all non-triglyceride ingredients Crevel et al. Cooking oil, margarine and shortening may also be made from several crops. Canola oil is the third most widely consumed vegetable oil in the world.

The genetic modifications are made for providing resistance to herbicides viz. Canola oil is a key ingredient in many foods and is sold directly to consumers as margarine or cooking oil.

The oil has many non-food uses, which includes making lipsticks. Maize, also called corn in the USA and cornmeal, which is ground and dried maize constitute a staple food in many regions of the world.

A good amount of the total maize harvested go for livestock feed including the distillers grains. The remaining has been used for ethanol and high fructose corn syrup production, export, and also used for other sweeteners, cornstarch, alcohol, human food or drink. Corn oil is sold directly as cooking oil and to make shortening and margarine, in addition to make vitamin carriers, as a source of lecithin, as an ingredient in prepared foods like mayonnaise, sauces and soups, and also to fry potato chips and French fries.

Cottonseed oil is used as a salad and cooking oil, both domestically and industrially.

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Out of the domestically grown sugar crops, half of the extracted sugar is derived from sugar beet, and the other half is from sugarcane. After deregulation in 2005, glyphosate-resistant sugar beet was extensively adopted in the USA. The food products of sugar beets are refined sugar and molasses.

Pulp remaining from the refining process is used as animal feed.

  1. These predictions can be verified afterwards through, for example, statistical epidemiological studies. Thus, for example, in the genetically distinct farmed Atlantic salmon in Norway the males are very much less successful than wild males in securing mates Jonssen, 1997.
  2. In the European Union, the question is not whether to label products of biotechnology, but how to label them.
  3. Concern has also surrounded the idea that genetically modified DNA would be unstable, causing damage via unintentional mutations not only to the crop, but also to whomever would consume it. This dependency may be benign or oppressive, depending on the arrangements made for seed supply.
  4. Mutagenicity aside, there are also concerns surrounding the ability of the modified DNA to transfer to the DNA of whomever eats it or have other toxic side effects. Abstract Genetic modification is a special set of gene technology that alters the genetic machinery of such living organisms as animals, plants or microorganisms.
  5. Their justification was the claim that they had no information showing that GM foods were substantially different. Even if farmed fish are at a selective disadvantage in natural conditions, the ratio of wild.

The sugar produced from GM sugar beets is highly refined and contains no DNA or protein—it is just sucrose, the same as sugar produced from non-GM sugar beets Joana et al. The array based method combines multiplex PCR and array technology to screen samples for different potential GMO combining different approaches viz.

The qPCR is used to detect specific GMO events by usage of specific primers for screening elements or event specific markers. Controls are necessary to avoid false positive or false negative results. For example, a test for CaMV is used to avoid a false positive in the event of a virus contaminated sample. The amplification of soybean lectin gene by end-point polymerase chain reaction PCR was achieved in all the steps of extraction and refining processes.

The amplification of RR soybean by PCR assays using event specific primers was also achieved for all the extraction and refining steps.

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This excluded the intermediate steps of refining viz. The real-time PCR assays using specific probes confirmed all the results and proved that it is possible to detect and quantify GMOs in the fully refined soybean oil.

This is based on a PCR detection system specific for 35S promoter region originating from cauliflower mosaic virus Deisingh and Badrie 2005. Inter-laboratory differences were found to be less with the QC-PCR than with quantitative PCR probably due to insufficient homogenisation of the sample. However, there are disadvantages, the major one being the amount of DNA, which could be amplified, is affected by food processing techniques and can vary up to 5-fold.