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Role of social media in egyptian revolution

Role of social media in social movements: However the reality is often much more complex. Critical evaluation is needed when thinking how much of an influence Twitter, Facebook, Youtube, Flickr and other social networking media have had on different forms of social movements and protests.

  1. Social media is thus a complex term with multi-layered meanings.
  2. In his online survey OccupyMedia!
  3. This short message is a perfect snapshot of the utility of Twitter.

Egyptian Revolution and Occupy Wall Street. Introduction 2011 was a year of protests, revolutions and political change. It was a year where people all over the world tried to make their dreams of a different society reality. He said that this page and other social media were crucial for the Egyptian revolution: Technology analyst Evgeny Morozov, in contrast to Ghonim, said that social media do not bring about revolutions: In his online survey OccupyMedia! Youtube censored the content and several emails were being deleted by Gmail, many people even faced a lawsuit in court because their hash tags were dropped supboenas.

All computing systems, and therefore all web applications, as well as all forms of media can be considered social because they store and transmit human knowledge that originates in social relations in society — they are objectifications of society and human social relations. But not all computing systems and web applications support direct communication between humans, in which at least two humans mutually exchange symbols that are interpreted as being meaningful.

Social media is thus a complex term with multi-layered meanings. Facebook contains a lot of content information and is a tool for communication and for the maintenance creation of communities.

Freie Universität Berlin

It is only to a minor degree a tool for collaborative work, but involves at least three types of sociality: According to that we may acknowledge several pre-Internet tools which were based on the same assumption: Social media overview One of the first such projects was called Useneta worldwide distributed discussion system, established in 1980, where users read and posted messages to one or more categories, known as newsgroups.

In many ways it resembled bulletin board system BBS where people were connecting themselves in a similar way over local servers operated by role of social media in egyptian revolution commercial connection provider.

In many respects both were precursors of Internet forums which developed with the formation of world wide web WWW or Internetas we call it today. One popular networking and media tool that developed out of BBS was Internet Relay Chat IRCwhere people communicated with each other in the form of text messages on group discussion forums channels and private. IRC became a popular networking and dating platform, especially among sexual minorities as in IRC 2014.

Next significant invention in the field of social media were blogswhich gained popularity with the introduction of dial-up connections to the Internet. People were usually writing them in a form of online diaries, in a chronological orders. Readers and visitors could leave comments or contact the authors. The Conversation Prism v4. Both have the capability to reach small or large audiences.

Social media operate under a dialogic transmission model many sources to many receivers in contrast to traditional mass media newspaper, radio, television, film that operate under a monologic transmission model one source to many receivers Murthy 2013: Individuals are thus becoming media producers and social media news and networking sites are the ways their content gets exposure.

Geographical or financial status are not anymore determinants of successful spreading of the information or selling a product. Whether you are a music producer, DJ, YouTube celebrity vlogger [1]small business or an anti-austerity group your ideas can get shared, commented on, talked about or being sold more Kietzman and Hermkens 2011: Since then, the term has taken different meanings and interpretations.

However in late informational capitalism the situation has fundamentally changed. Conflicts are not only struggles for material property such as technologies, machines, capital, and natural resources, role of social media in egyptian revolution also conflicts over symbolic and informational goods such as knowledge, values, genetic information, human rights, nature as a preservable and valuable good, democracy, and peace Fuchs 2005: Deprivation and powerlessness no longer automatically result in protest as in the 19th century.

Society has become more complex, and hence the patterns of class and protest have increased in complexity too. This is not the point to write at length [3] about different Social movement theoriesrather I would like to briefly focus on two most dominant and debated approaches in recent history: Resource Mobilization Approach RMdeveloped in the US and the New Social Movement Approach NSMdeveloped in Europe as in Fuchs 2006 that served as sources for scholarly debate about conjunctions between social media and social movements, especially regarding self-organization of the latter and lead to the development of recently very popular Networks theories.

The first, Resource Mobilization approach RMhas its roots in the tradition of Rational Choice Theory that considers actors as rationally calculating gains and losses that stem from certain potential actions, and make choices for or against certain actions based on such calculations.

SMs were explained as the result of the successful mobilization of resources and political opportunities by rational actors. Such resources would both be material money, organizations, manpower, technology, means of communication, mass media and non-material legitimacy, loyalty, social relationships, networks, personal connections, public attention, authority, moral commitment, solidarity.

Within a framework of culture, identity became a focal point of the second approach to mention here, that of New Social Movements NSM. Turn to culture in NSM theory signaled a shift away from structural analysis that had typically marked European scholarship, which argued, that the social base of new social movements tended to transcend class structure, with the search for identity becoming key to movement formation 2003: NSM theorists stressed that structural conditions and changes of society cause the emergence of social movements and strongly opposed economic reductionism and class reductionism: That is to say, activists in new social movements turned their gaze inwards, focusing on issues as they affected their personal lives, and pursuing social change through politicizing culture Melluci 1994: A model of protests and revolutions and the role of crises, the media, ideology and politics Fuchs 2012: Fuchs argues that SMs in information capitalism form through self-organization, which takes into account both internal and external, structural- and action-based aspects of social movements and that it allows a dynamic concept of protest see Figure 2.

Summarizing his idea of self-organization approach, we can argue that SMs formation in comparison to both previously debated, can be seen as dynamic and complex process on both a micro and a macro level, as SMs are based on the permanent emergence and reproduction of their self-created protest practices and structures. Role of social media in egyptian revolution understanding of SMs formation overlaps and links with many ideas of Network theorists, who helped addressing the division, created by a narrow focus on identity as mediated through cultural analysis.

The result is a deeply networked, interdependent economy that has transformed society; in fact, the network became the central organizing principle of the information society Milberry 2003: Thus, social movements became increasingly global both in target and in form Milberry 2003: Cyberspace put revolutionary potential in the hands of social justice activists [5]which contested actual nature and consequences of current global socioeconomic relations and foundations governing them.

Yet the transformative potential of networked activism lies not in the technology it uses but in the actions it fosters Land 2009: Egyptian revolution The Egyptian uprising on social media echoed the previous civil unrest and disobedience in Tunisiawhich was triggered by the self-immolation of Mohammed Bouazizi.

International Journal of Communication

By committing his desperate act in front of the office of the regional governor, Bouazizi forced the regime to assume political and moral responsibility for his situation, thus turning him into a symbolic representative of millions of young Tunisians who lacked opportunities for socio-economic advancement Breuer 2012: Scholarly debates about organization of this protest are very contradictory comp.

Fuchs 2014b; Castells 2012; Shirky 2011; Harvey 2012 but they agree on the fact, that one of the motivational causes was the brutal murder of 28-year-old Khaled Said at the hands of Egyptian police in Alexandria role of social media in egyptian revolution June 2010. His death [6] became a strong motivation for internet activists.

Protests turned into violent clashes with police look belowseveral people were killed everyday. Khaled Abol Naga, 06. The following tweet from the well-known blogger Mahmoud Salemsent on 11 February, offers a good example: There are only 1000 there with thousands on the Roxy side.

This short message is a perfect snapshot of the utility of Twitter. The update was sent to those protesting and following hashtag jan25 on Twitter, to communicate a weakness in the protest, circumnavigating the need for a chain of command and allowing the protesters to respond quickly to emergent threats.

Role of social media in social movements: Egyptian Revolution and Occupy Wall Street

The government subsequently role of social media in egyptian revolution the Internet off on 28th January see Figure 3presumably hoping that activists would flounder once deprived of their means of communication, however the opposite proved true. People started to communicate through mobile phones, distributing SMS messages, more likely than calling.

This form of networked distribution is key, because it means that, at every stage, the receiver identifies the information as coming from a known — and, crucially — trusted, source.

This transforms the wireless communication network into a role of social media in egyptian revolution of trust, in which the receiver is likely to show greater faith in the information 2013: We are all Khaled Said cartoon Gerbaudo 2012: Despite the emphasis on Facebook and Twitter see Figure 4new technologies and web-based applications very rarely operate in isolation: This also refutes theories debated among many western technological determinists see Castells 2012: Harvey 2011 in Fuchs 2012: But not only that.

In his book Tweets and the Streets. On 30 May 2011, a leader of the Indignados, inspired by the Arab Spring happening, 5. Activist, anarchist and anthropologist David Graeber, and several of his associates, attended the NYABC general assembly GA but, disappointed that the event was intended to be a precursor to marching on Wall Street with predetermined demands, Graeber and his small group created their own general assembly, which eventually developed into the New York General Assembly.

Occupy Hand signals both Wikipedia3. The Top Vlog, 18. One good example for affirming this position for OWS can be taken from the Occupy General Survey that was conducted among OWS activists, which shows that that both direct face-to-face interaction and mediated interaction have been crucial news sources for Occupy activists. Broadcasting and newspapers had a much less important role than the Internet. Instead it was the occupation of public spaces, marching without permits, and disruption of daily life in the Financial District that signaled an open-ended defiance lacking in previous efforts.

Conclusion Digital infrastructures empower protest movements in specific ways, and recent uprisings and large protests around the world have provided indications of this power. However, some of the same mechanisms of digitally-fueled empowerment have paradoxically led to dis-empowering side effects.

Further, many governments have developed methods to respond to this new information environment, which allows for fewer gatekeeper controls, by aggressively countering these new movements, often with a combination of traditional repression as well as novel methods aimed at addressing online media Tufekci 2014: Social media have greatly empowered protesters-activists in three key areas: Old forms of gate keeping, which depended on choke point access control to few broadcast outlets, neither work as effectively nor in the same way as they did in the past.

Digital technologies provide a means by which many people can reach information that governments would rather deny them. Street protests can be coordinated on the fly. However the influence of social media on the practice of protest has complex and sometimes unexpected results, including weak policy impacts and threats to the sustainability of movements 2014: As Charles Tilly 2001argues, at their core, social movements are demonstrative in that they display worthiness, unity, numbers, and commitment p.

Unity is a signal of determination; numbers illustrate public support; and commitment is indicative of the ability to persist and potentially disrupt. Power and Community also featured on this blog. Egyptian Revolution and Occupy Wall Streetwhich is an extended work of this blog. Additionally I suggest reading works of C. Fuchs, a social media scholar, accessible on his web page.

It was later appropriated also in other countries along with the Twitter Occupy hash tag format. International Journal of Market Research 57 2: Evidence from the Tunisian Revolution. Economy, Society and culture Vol. Castells, Manuel, 2009, Communication Power.