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The determination of the membership size as the crucial factor in pressure groups

Are interest groups elitist or pluralist "Power is concentrated in a select few pressure groups. This question can be worded in a million ways. Pluralist Argument Elitist argument Supplement for electoral systems. Elections only take place every few years, during which the elected representatives may lose touch with their constituents and fall short of their electoral promises — when this happens pressure groups can step in and force the government to interact with civil society, bring up issues that they may have ignored and get them to engage in it.

So, pressure groups ensure that democracy continues to flourish in between election time by encouraging the government to actively engage in issues concerning various groups in civil society. This political theorist argues that it is the pressure groups with the most wealth that get to influence government, the smaller less wealthy pressure groups are unable to have influence because the cannot afford things such as hosting mass campaigns, hiring professional lobbyists from K Street.

Therefore, power in society is only concentrated in a small minority of elitist wealthy pressure groups. For instance, Allow for transparency. Transparency is crucial to a democracy because it ensures that there is openness of government doings and people are aware that the government is not abusing them. Pressure groups allow for transparency through a number of ways, they have played key roles in recent years in exposing government agencies and congressional representatives, this is important so that constituents for instance are aware of what their representatives are up to and are working in accordance to their electoral pledges.

The pressure groups may be blocking all bills and slowing down or blocking desirable changes, thereby contributing to social immobilization. This may even lead to the prevention of the government from functioning properly as was seen in the government shutdown ofwhich was primarily caused by Ted Cruz but supported, by a small amount of pressure group Heritage Action and Tea Party Patriots.

This shows that one or two pressure groups can bring an entire government to a standstill suggesting that power is actually not evenly distributed if one pressure group has the ability to influence a day government shutdown. This was something that was opposed by the Democrats and even a vast majority of Republican pressure groups yet it still managed to happen.

In democracy there is a general tyranny of the majority over votes, meaning that the minority is usually ignored. Pressure groups occasionally adopt the view of the minority groups that are ignored, effectively giving them a voice and some influence over politics.

Everyone has the determination of the membership size as the crucial factor in pressure groups voice in politics because of this. They have the support of environmental groups, their situation has gained recognition across the country even politicians like Bernie Sanders have turned up at the site to show support. These exist in US politics, they are simply relationships between three different political actors, a pressure group, a congressional committee and a bureaucratic department or agency.

In an iron triangle each side works together but as long as its interests are protected, it is through iron triangles that policy is formulated. States that there has been an explosion in the amount of interest groups since the 50s and that they face each other over competing interests and that there is a constant shift in political power between the interest groups.

One interest group is not always the most influential and it changes over time. This is generally seen through the NRA who occasionally have high points in gun control protection but are occasionally lose. This means that everyone gets a fair share of influence and there is general equality on the level of influence held by the groups. Explains why abortion remains a state issue and why there are still limits on it.

Thus limiting advances made by planned parenthood in the field of abortion. Elitism in the structure of an interest group. Many pressure groups themselves may not be representative of their members. Their officers are not usually elected.

Few groups have procedures for consulting their members. As a result the members may not share the views expressed by group officials.

This means that within the interest group itself, few unelected people without consultation of the membership make the decisions. This would suggest that the pressure groups are elitist in its very own structure and the way they work.

For example, pressure groups can go ahead at national level and seek influence via the Supreme Court, Congress e. AIPAC deployed lobbyists to a plethora of Congress politicians to push for action in Syria betweenand is still happening today.

So, therefore different pressure groups exist to protect and represent different ethnic groups: National Council of La Raza representing the Latinos.

Why has the impact of professional lobbyists on policy-making in the USA been controversial? This would be a form of elitism as it is giving greater power and influence to the few who could actually afford it.

The US Chamber of Commerce has spent the most money on lobbying so far in by spending a total of Many pressure groups do not have a budget anywhere near the size of this.

Honest Leadership and Open Government Act of Why have the activities of Pressure Groups been criticised? Congress can be viewed as this environment whereby, as a consequence of mass lobbying and excessive campaign money flowing through candidates, a load of pressure group interests are floating about and competing for influence, each pressure group has its own interest and they influence their own candidates in Congress and this leads to much disagreement among Congress.

This has been criticised as a very elitist method of influence used by pressure groups. This gives a view of influence going to the highest bidder. It was widely suggested that corruption was at play when Mitch McConnell receivedin donations from lobbying firms. Additionally, many pressure groups use SuperPACs and occasionally have their own SuperPAC, which allows them to give unlimited donations to the party of politician of their choice.

This gives the view of the pressure groups buying the support or allegiance of government officials. It is considered as an unfair advantage and negates from the argument proposed by Robert Salisbury. The iron triangle would suggest that pressure groups wont be in a constant power struggle if they have opposing views to either the of the three branches of the Iron Triangle and that as long as they are all benefiting each other — nothing will change.

  1. Membership size is a crucial factor in determining pressure group success. Pluralist Argument Elitist argument Supplement for electoral systems.
  2. Wealthier pressure groups wield greatest influence as candidates may rely on these donations meaning they are elitist. Elitism in the structure of an interest group.
  3. Helping to increase political participation and thus trying to enhance democracy - with individuals that do not usually vote such as young people Educate the electorate E Publishing voter records.
  4. So, therefore different pressure groups exist to protect and represent different ethnic groups. This would suggest that the pressure groups are elitist in its very own structure and the way they work.

Suggesting that pressure groups are undemocratic because of their elitist nature. Membership size is a crucial factor in determining pressure group success. Members of the house are more likely to keep large pressure groups happy to gain their votes, as they have to constantly campaign.

This large membership often turns into success because again politicians will pander to them in order to gain voters. This is evident by the fact that the NRA endorsed some candidates in the midterms. Although it can be argued that political parties do have some final say in the legislative process.

They failed and the deal went through. Thus showing that political parties do have some final say in legislative process. To conclude membership size does play a large factor but does not guarantee success Membership size is the crucial factor in determining PG success because it leads to larger donations to politicians, which influences policy.

However, Large donations do not always lead to influence in policy, as politicians may not be elected. National Right to Life Donations: Large support means they represent large amounts of the public so PGs demands carry more weight behind them.

AARP which have over 37 million members with revenues around 2 million - therefore views and demands will be much more adhered to by the government, compared to smaller groups. However, Some groups may have success without large membership through the use of insider status and Supreme Court decision.

Insider groups are widely used and referred to by government as they have high amounts of knowledge in a specific field. Whilst Supreme Court is an access point for pressure groups and court the determination of the membership size as the crucial factor in pressure groups may sway opinion to help the group e. Membership size is crucial in determining pressure group success as the larger the membership, the higher the chance of members having access to lobbyists.

The huge support for NCLR catches the attention of such politicians like Warren, hence her attendance of the event. Pressure groups are ensuring that the voices of the people are being heard. Ensuring that the president has as much legitimacy as possible through the electorate with FPTP. Helping to increase political participation and thus trying to enhance democracy - with individuals that do not usually vote such as young people Educate the electorate E Publishing voter records: Leads to electorate making more informed decisions.

P But, the education may be skewed biased so the public will support what they want them to. Lead to lack of peer review. Fossil fuel barons invested more than million dollars into GOP super pacs The endorsement leads to the polarisation and division of a nation as per campaign finance reform, they are published publicly and if a certain company or group is clearly seen as supporting a specific candidate, this may lead to internal divisions or generally among their supporters.

Wealthier pressure groups wield greatest influence as candidates may rely on these donations meaning they are elitist. PGs cannot endorse candidates actively but can attack rivals without limit or accounting for attacks.

They would often send lobbyists to congressmen such as how AIPAC lobbied all of Congress to attend a meeting with Benjamin Netanyahu at a convention to support Israeli rights and get funding for them. Because of Congress having the power of the purse, it is the only route to actually take in acquiring this. There are so many stages in the creation of legislation in Congress for a piece of legislation to fail for example a pressure group could lobby committee members who could completely change it or the leader of that committee who could simply pigeonhole the bill.

Elections are becoming very expensive, there is a dependence on pressur groups to finance their campaigns. Least producitve legislative year wasthere was a government shut down in and the th Congress was the least productive congress ever. The current Congress is also not particularly producitve. Since Congress is so dysfunctional it is better that they do it to the executive who sets the agenda at the bully pulpit, if they can convince the executive to support them their agenda will be the official agendao f congress which usually reflects that of the president.

Also have a more direct influence over foreing policy.