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Rules in writing numbers in a research paper

Contact Writing Numbers Except for a few basic rules, spelling out numbers vs. Again, consistency is the key. Policies and philosophies vary from medium to medium.

America's two most influential style and usage guides have different approaches: The Associated Press Stylebook recommends spelling out the numbers zero through nine and using numerals thereafter—until one million is reached. Here are four examples of how to write numbers above 999,999 in AP style: The Chicago Manual of Style recommends spelling out the numbers zero through one hundred and using figures thereafter—except for whole numbers used in combination with hundred, thousand, hundred thousand, million, billion, and beyond e.

In Chicago style, as opposed to AP style, we would write four hundred, eight thousand, and twenty million with no numerals—but like AP, Chicago style would require numerals for 401; 8,012; and 20,040,086.

Writing Numbers

This is a complex topic, with many exceptions, and there is no consistency we can rely on among blogs, books, newspapers, and magazines. This chapter will confine itself to rules that all media seem to agree on.

Spell out all numbers beginning a sentence. Twenty-three hundred sixty-one victims were hospitalized.

The basic rules

Nineteen fifty-six was quite a year. The Associated Press Stylebook makes an exception for years. Hyphenate all compound numbers from twenty-one through ninety-nine. Forty-three people were injured in the train wreck.

Rules for Writing Numbers

Twenty-seven of them were hospitalized. Hyphenate all written-out fractions. We recovered about two-thirds of the stolen cash. One-half is slightly less than five-eighths. However, do not hyphenate terms like a third or a half.

With figures of four or more digits, use commas. Count three spaces to the left to place the first comma.

Improve Your Writing

Continue placing commas after every three digits. Some choose not to use commas with four-digit numbers, but this practice is not recommended. It is not necessary to use a decimal point or a dollar sign when writing out sums of less than a dollar.

He had only sixty cents. OR He had only 60 cents. Do not add the word "dollars" to figures preceded by a dollar sign.

Numbers in your dissertation: Should you use words or numerals?

For clarity, use noon and midnight rather than 12: Some put a space between the time and AM or PM.