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Rules for citations in a research paper

Archaeology Linguistics Many other fields and subject areas regularly use this style too. There are other formats and styles to use, such as MLA format and Chicago, among many, many others.

Not doing so can be considered plagiarism, possibly leading to a failed grade or loss of a job. This style is one of the most commonly used citation styles used to prevent plagiarism.

Writing and Organizing Your Paper in an Effective Way This section of our guide focuses on proper paper length, how to format headings, and desirable wording.

Be direct, clear, and professional. Try not to add fluff and unnecessary details into your paper or writing. This will keep the paper length shorter and more concise. Headings serve an important purpose — they organize your paper and make it simple to locate different pieces of information. In addition, headings provide readers with a glimpse to the main idea, or content, they are about to read.

In APA format, there are five levels of headings, each with different sizes and purposes Level 1: Should be a bit smaller than the title, which is Level 1 Place this heading against the left margin Use bold letters Use uppercase and lowercase letters where necessary Level 3: Should be a bit smaller than Level 2 Indented in from the left side margin Use bold letters Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading.

All others should be lowercase. Rules for citations in a research paper exception is for pronouns as they should begin with a capital letter.

Should be a bit smaller than Level 3 Indented in from the left margin Bolded Italicized Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. Should be the smallest heading in your paper Indented Italicized Only place an uppercase letter at the first word of the heading. Here is a visual example of the levels of headings: Writing a paper for scientific topics is much different than writing for English, literature, and other composition classes. Science papers are much more direct, clear, and concise.

This section includes key suggestions, from APA, to keep in mind while formulating your research paper. Research experiments and observations rely on the creation and analysis of data to test hypotheses and come to conclusions.

While sharing and explaining the methods and results of studies, science writers often use verbs. We tested the solution to identify the possible contaminants. Researchers often test solutions by placing them under a microscope. Notice that the first sentence is in the past tense while the second sentence is in the present tense. This can be confusing for readers. For verbs in scientific papers, the manual recommends using: Past tense or present perfect tense for the explantation of the procedure Past tense for the explanation of the results Present tense for the explanation of the rules for citations in a research paper and future implications Tone: Even though your writing will not have the same fluff and detail as other forms of writing, it should not be boring or dull to read.

The Publication Manual suggests thinking about who will be the main reader of your work and to write in a way that educates them. The American Psychological Association strongly objects of any bias towards gender, racial groups, ages of individuals or subjects, disabilities, and sexual orientation. Here are a few guidelines that the American Psychological Association suggests: Do not include information about individuals or labels if it is not necessary to include.

Use one space after most punctuation marks unless the punctuation mark is at the end of a sentence. If the punctuation mark is at the end of the sentence, use two spaces afterwards. If too many abbreviations are used in one sentence, it may become difficult for the reader to comprehend the meaning.

Term Paper: Format of Citations and References

Prior to using an unfamiliar abbreviation, you must type it out in text and place the abbreviation immediately following it in parentheses. Any usage of the abbreviation after the initial description, can be used without the description. Patients who experience STM loss while using the medication should discuss it with their doctor. AIDS Use an oxford comma. This type rules for citations in a research paper comma is placed before the words and OR or in a series of three items.

The medication caused drowsiness, upset stomach, and fatigue. For possessive plural nouns, the apostrophe is placed after the s. If you plan to add any charts, tables, drawings, or images to your paper, number them using Arabic numerals. The first graphic, labeled as 1, should be the first one mentioned in the text. Follow them in the appropriate numeral order in which they appear in the text of your paper. Chart 1, Chart 2, Chart 3.

Only use graphics if they will supplement the material in your text. If they reinstate what you already have in your text, then it is not necessary to include a graphic. Include enough wording in the graphic so that the reader is able to understand its meaning, even if it is isolated from the corresponding text.

However, do not go overboard with adding a ton of wording in your graphic. Click here to find additional information about citation fundamentals. Contributor Information and Titles: The main contributor s of the source often the name of the author is placed before the date and title.

If there is more than one author, arrange the authors in the same order found on the source. Use the first and middle name initials and the entire last name. Inverse all names before the title. Other contributor types Sometimes the main contributor is not an author, but another contributor type, such as an editor for a book, a conductor for a musical piece, or a producer for a film.

In this instance, follow the contributor with the contributor type abbreviate Editor s as Ed. Corporate or group authors Some sources may have corporate or group authors.

  • Interviews If you choose to include any personal interviews, reference them with the person's name, their professional title and employer, and the date, time, and place of the interview;
  • For example, give the year of publication for a book, the year and month of publication for a monthly magazine or journal, and the year, month, and day for a newspaper or daily periodical;
  • Then put the year of publication, the title of the book in italics if possible , the publisher, the city, and the number of pages in the book;
  • In-text citation Establishing regular routines, such as exercise, can help survivors of disasters recover from trauma American Psychological Association [APA], n;
  • For parenthetical citations with three to five authors;
  • If there is more than one author, arrange the authors in the same order found on the source.

Write these organizations in their entirety, and place them where you would write the author. Illinois Department of Industrial Relations. McGraw-Hill No contributor information Sometimes you will come across sources with no contributor information. In this instance, do not write the date first.

  • You only need to include the page number in the citation if you are quoting directly, or if the source is very long and the specific fact or idea you are citing can only be found on a specific page;
  • Business Periodicals Ondisk Item 91-11501;
  • The basic form of your reference will be similar to printed references, but you will need to add some important additional information;
  • This format is very similar to that of the Modern Language Association, and these are the most commonly used styles for publishing in the social and natural sciences;
  • Citing References in the Body Intro and Discussion of the Paper Throughout the body of your paper primarily the Intro and Discussion , whenever you refer to outside sources of information, you must cite the sources from which you drew information.

Instead, write the name of the title and then the date, then followed by the remaining appropriate bibliographic data. Title Rules — Capitalization and Italics Article titles and works within larger works, such as chapters and web pages, as well as informally published material are not italicized.

Main titles that stand alone, such as those for books and journals, are italicized. Generally, capitalize the first letter of the first word of the title or any subtitles, and the first letter of any proper nouns. For titles of periodicals, such as journals and newspapers, capitalize every principal word. Publication Information After the contributor information and title comes the publication information.

Citing References in Scientific Research Papers

Below are different publication templates. Journal Title, Volume IssuePage s. Magazine Title, Volume IssuePage s.

EasyBib Guide to Citing and Writing in APA Format

Year, Month Day published. Newspaper Title, Page s. Additional information For less conventional source types, you can add descriptions about the source after the title, in brackets, immediately after the title.

For example, you can add [Brochure] after the title of a brochure separated by a space to clarify the type of source you are citing.

See the example below: Generally, parenthetical citations include the last name of the author and year of publication. Page numbers are also included when citing a direct quote. If some of the information is included in the body of the sentence, exclude it from the parenthetical citation.

  1. Year, Month Day published.
  2. Writing a paper for scientific topics is much different than writing for English, literature, and other composition classes.
  3. For parenthetical citations with two authors, format your parenthetical citation like this.
  4. Reference entry All things Nittany.
  5. WWW citation should be done with caution since so much is posted without peer review.

In-text APA citations typically appear at the end of the sentence, between the last word and the period. Harlem had many artists and musicians in the late 1920s Belafonte, 2008. Example of a parenthetical citation when author is mentioned in the text: According to Belafonte, Harlem was full of artists and musicians in the late 1920s 2008. For parenthetical citations with two authors, format your parenthetical citation like this: For parenthetical citations with three to five authors: The event resulted in thousands of participants flocking to the National Mall in support of the cause Stewart et al.

OR Stewart et al. The study did not come to any definitive conclusions Rothschild et al. For parenthetical citations for sources without an author: If a work has no author, include the first few words of the bibliography entry in many cases, the title and the year.

However, unlike in your reference list, parenthetical citations of articles and chapters should have all major words capitalized. Italicize the titles of periodicals, books, brochures, or reports. The report includes some bleak results Information Illiteracy in Academia, 2009. Citing a part of a work: When citing a specific part of a work, provide the relevant page number or section identifier, such as a chapters, tables, or figures.

Direct quotes should always have page numbers.