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Citing a book within a research paper

Format of Citations and References 1. Introduction As you write your term papers, it will be important for you to document where you obtained the information cited in your report.

  • Author-page citation for classic and literary works with multiple editions Page numbers are always required, but additional citation information can help literary scholars, who may have a different edition of a classic work like Marx and Engels's The Communist Manifesto;
  • Those that were allowed to stay manned the pits, mining the coal that would fuel the ships;
  • Both citations in the examples above, 263 and Wordsworth 263 , tell readers that the information in the sentence can be located on page 263 of a work by an author named Wordsworth;
  • A guide to citing electronic information.

Many of the references you use will come from published sources. Some may come from electronic sources such as the World Wide Web, Melvyl and Harvest databases available through the UC Davis library, CD references and the like, and some may come from interviews. An important component of your writing will be the effective use of reference material.

MLA In Text Citation & Parenthetical Guide

This skill will serve you well in writing papers of all types, not just those required for classes. For this class, we will be using the documentation style of the American Psychological Association APA, 2001 modified with italics substituted for underlining.

This format is very similar to that of the Modern Language Association, and these are the most commonly used styles for publishing in the social and natural sciences. The general form of citations in the body of the text is to include the author and date in parentheses as above and optionally include the page number s after the date. If the author's name was just mentioned in the text, it is not necessary to repeat it in the citation.

The rules are described in more detail, with examples, in section 3. Basic Guidelines The purpose of the term paper in ECS 15 is for you to learn how to do effective research on a subject and then write it up clearly, showing where you got your information.

  1. The Purdue OWL is accessed by millions of users every year.
  2. These abbreviations should only be in the references with parentheses. Communications of the ACM, 27 2 , 141-195.
  3. Sources With Two Authors There are many books, journal articles, magazine articles, reports, and other source types written or created by two authors.
  4. Watson, L, and Dallwitz, M.

A research paper requires searching for information pertinent to a given subject, organizing it, and presenting it effectively in written form. Oral research reports are also useful, but this course does not cover them. In the following sections, we will present the way that we want you to cite your references in the term paper for this course. The required format meets the accepted practices cited in Li and Crane 1993a reference that is currently considered the best authority on citing electronic sources.

This book in turn follows the basic format for the American Psychological Association APA, 2001which is a good format though by no means the only acceptable one in technical publications.

You may be required to use slightly different formats for other papers, such as papers submitted for publication to refereed journals, each of which typically have their citing a book within a research paper styles. Learning how to follow one such set of rules is a worthwhile exercise.

You will therefore be expected to use the format set out below. In-text Citation to References When citing a reference from your reference list, please use the following conventions. Put in parentheses the author s last names, the year, and optionally the page number s separated by commas. For one author, use the author's last name and year separated by a comma.

Walters, 1994 or Austin, 1996. For more than five authors, use the first author's last name and "et al. For the date, use the year. If there are two references by the same author s for the same year, use letters after the year: If there are specific page numbers for a citation, add them after the year Walters, 1994, pp.

If you include the author's name s in the text of a sentence in the paper, you may omit their names from the parentheses as follows: Do not use footnotes in this class for citations. You can use them for explanatory text, but not for references.

Have the citation make it easy to find the reference in the "References" section. All references in that section should be complete enough for readers to obtain a copy for themselves. Your List of References Create a list of references, one for each item cited in the paper, in a section called "References".

This section goes at the end of your paper. The references are to be alphabetized by the fist author's last name, or if no author is listed the organization or title. If you cite more than one paper by the same first author, sort them by year of publication, earliest year first.

Do not use footnotes for citations. Single-space the entries in your list of references. Start at the left margin for the first line of each bibliography entry. Each additional line of each entry should be indented a reasonable amount. Separate the entries with a blank line. Do not number the references. Doing so means you have to renumber all the references whenever you insert a new reference.

Author, Date, and Title The general format for the author, title, and date in your reference list is as follows: Author First author's last name, followed by the initials.

If there are two authors, separate their names with "and".

2. Basic Guidelines

For three or more authors, separate all but the last author's name with commas, and use "and" before the last author's name in the list. If published by an agency with no author given, list the name of the agency. End with a period. National Bureau of Standards. Date Enclose the date in parentheses. Use a date sufficiently specific for the item. For example, give the year of publication for a book, the year and month of publication for a monthly magazine or journal, and the year, month, and day for a newspaper or daily periodical.

Title If the title is that of an article, use the regular font; if it is the title of a book, italicize it. Capitalize only the first letter of the first word and proper nouns.

If there is a subtitle, it too should begin with a capital letter. For example, an article's title would look like: An introduction for novice and intermediate programmers. Journals, Magazines, and Newspapers The following apply to citing the name and identifying information for journals, magazines, newspapers, and periodicals in general.

  1. The 11 indicates that the quote is found on page 11 in the journal.
  2. You should also use abbreviations e.
  3. Language as Symbolic Action. To discover more about previous editions, learn more here.

Title When citing the name of a journal, magazine or newspaper, write the name in italics, with all words capitalized except for articles, prepositions and conjunctions. Volume, number, and page numbers Give the volume number in italics, followed by the issue number in parentheses if there is citing a book within a research paper issue numberand the page number s. For magazines, precede page numbers with "p. Communications of the ACM, 27 2141-195. Journal of Advertising Research, 32, 47-55.

Publisher and Location Give the city and state if in the United Statesfollowed by a colon and the publisher name, followed by a period. Interviews If you choose to include any personal interviews, reference them with the person's name, their professional title and employer, and the date, time, and place of the interview.

These can serve as appropriate references for research reports and term papers. It is important, however, to acknowledge the sources of these documents, even though you may never have seen "hard copy" printed versions of the file s you wish to cite. This section describes how you are to cite references that you have obtained from electronic repositories.

The basic form of your reference will be similar to printed references, but you will need to add some important additional information: In general, if you wish to cite an electronic file, you should include either the term "[Online]" or the term "[CDROM]" enclosed in square brackets before the closing period terminating the title of the work cited. If you are citing a part of a larger work, you should give the title, followed by a comma, the word "In" followed by the larger work, and then add "[Online]" or "[CDROM]" as appropriate, followed by a period.

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Citing the availability of an electronic document should give the reader enough information to know where to locate the file and, if necessary, the specific portion of the file cited. Electronic documents can come from several types of locations: Generally, giving the site Internet-style server name on which the information resides, the name of the file, and the complete path list of directories showing how to get to it is sufficient.

Business Periodicals Ondisk Item 91-11501. Samples of Complete References All of the examples given above may be summarized by citing a few references in the form we would like you to use. Here are some examples that would be cited in the text as Crosley, 1988Essinger, 1991, May 28, pp. Printed Book Crosley, L. The architects' guide to computer-aided-design.

Magazine Article Essinger, J. Just another tool of your trade. Journal Article Armstrong, P. British Medical Journal 303 2105-109. Interview Computer, Christopher C. Children's research and methods: Business Periodicals Ondisk Item: Thu, 30 Nov 1995 20: Watson, L, and Dallwitz, M. Grass genera of the world-interactive identification and information retrieval.

A guide to citing electronic information.