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Computer game addiction statement of the problem

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background Existing instruments for measuring problematic computer and console gaming and internet use are often lengthy and often based on a pathological perspective.

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The objective was to develop and present a new and short non-clinical measurement tool for perceived problems related to computer use and gaming among adolescents and to study the association between screen time and perceived problems. The main exposure was time spend on weekdays on computer- and console-gaming and internet use for communication and surfing. The outcome measures were three indexes on perceived problems related to computer and console gaming and internet use.

Results The three new indexes showed high face validity and acceptable internal consistency. Most schoolchildren with high screen time did not experience problems related to computer use. Still, there was a strong and graded association between time use and perceived problems related to computer gaming, console gaming only boys and internet use, odds ratios ranging from 6.

We found an increasing risk of perceived problems with increasing time spent with gaming and internet use. Nevertheless, most schoolchildren who spent much time with gaming and internet use did not experience problems.

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Most adolescents in Europe and North America spend two or more hours daily on computer-games and two or more hours on surfing and chatting via the internet. Time use exceeding four hours per day is common unpublished analyses of HBSC computer game addiction statement of the problem data 2010 [ 2 ].

A range of scholars have raised concerns about the risk of becoming addicted to these behaviours [ 3 - 9 ]. Many studies focus on negative side effects or co-occurrence with mental health problems [ 7810 - 12 ], addictive behaviours [ 10 - 19 ], poor memory [ 20 ], poor school performance [ 21 ], poor cognitive function [ 2022 ], withdrawal from social life [ 23 ], and neural damages [ 24 - 26 ].

Most of the commonly applied questionnaires regarding internet addiction address core dimensions of addiction such as compulsive use, negative outcomes, and salience [ 27 ]. There is a debate whether excessive use of computer gaming and internet use is a disorder, a manifestation of an underlying psychopathology, a common behaviour, or whether it rather reflects a media-based moral panic [ 28 - 30 ].

It is important to conceptually separate non-problematic and problematic use of these media [ 1929 ] and to distinguish engagement from pathology [ 2931 ].

According to Ferguson et al. This literature applies terms as addiction, dependency, disorder, and compulsiveness. Many studies apply measures, which are rooted in the DSM-V criteria for addiction and pathological gambling [ 3152532 - 34 ] or the ICD-10 criteria for dependency [ 9 ]. Other scholars adhere to what Ferguson et al. These papers often examine motivation to engage in computer gaming and internet use and positive aspects of gaming and computer use, e.

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The notion of high computer engagement is common in these papers [ 3138 ]. These papers are often more concerned with screen time than pathology [ 53440 - 42 ] and often focus on health issues such as physical inactivity [ 40 ], sedentary lifestyle, overweight [ 4042 ], and sleep deprivation [ 2043 - 45 ].

Especially, video-gaming seem to be difficult to computer game addiction statement of the problem [ 4647 ]. Several studies consider gaming and internet use as a continuum from computer engagement to addiction [ 47 - 49 ]. Most of the applied measures on computer gaming and internet use focus on negative side effects such as mental health problems. Most of these measures are long - typically more than 15 items. They are usually developed for clinical research and include items about the DSM-IV, DSM-V and ICD-10 criteria for internet addiction or compulsive computer gaming or pathological gambling [ 91532 - 3450 - 54 ].

Most of these measures include criteria for 1 withdrawal, 2 loss of control and 3 conflicts. According to King et al. We suggest that adolescents may perceive problems related to computer gaming and internet use which are non-pathological. Being engaged in school surveys about health and everyday life in adolescence, we feel there is a need for a measure which is short and simple for use in non-clinical research.

This paper presents such a non-clinical measurement focusing on perceived problems related to computer use and gaming. Many papers have addressed screen time and the relationship between screen-time and perceived problems [ 314855 ]. There seems to be a moderate correlation between screen-time and perceived problems but it is not clear how little screen-time may be sufficient to result in problems and how large screen-time may be unproblematic.

Research paper about computer addiction Essay

The objectives of this paper computer game addiction statement of the problem therefore 1 to present a new and short measurement tool for non-clinical research about perceived problems related to computer gaming and internet use and 2 to examine the relationship between screen time and these perceived problems.

Methods Design and study population The Aarhus School Survey was conducted in the city of Aarhus, the second largest city in Denmark 314,000 inhabitants. The overall aim was to investigate health, health behaviour, social relations and well-being of school.

The sampling included 13 schools, strategically chosen to get a sufficient variation in socio-economic and migration background. All schoolchildren in grade five, seven, and nine 11- 13- and 15-year-olds were invited to complete a special version of the internationally standardized HBSC questionnaire [ 56 ].

Ethical issues In Denmark there is no formal agency for approval of population based surveys and the schools decide autonomously whether to participate in such surveys. The survey was conducted under full confidentiality, informed consent, and voluntary participation. The participants returned their questionnaire in sealed envelopes in order to protect their anonymity. There is no indication of name, date of birth, or school name in the data file, i.

Measurements As most measures of problematic computer- console- and internet use, we relied on self-reports of perceived problems [ 3857 - 60 ].


We identified three kinds of perceived problems: The pilot test also showed that the schoolchildren distinguished between computer gaming, console-gaming, and use of the internet for communication and surfing not for home work. This is the reason for asking separate questions for these three behaviours, although computer gaming and console-gaming are functionally similar behaviours. We constructed separate summary indexes for computer gaming, console-gaming and internet communication and surfing, range 0 to 3.

We consider 0—1 as low and 2—3 as high problem score. We applied the HBSC items about the time use for computer- and console gaming and use of computer. The distribution of screen time for gaming was so different for boys and girls that we decided to apply different cut-points for boys and girls.

Table 1 Measurement of time use and perceived problems related to computer-gaming, console-gaming, and internet use Item wording.