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An introduction to the history of breakthroughs in american jazz in new orleans

Assess the impact of three technologies that changed the face of the music industry. Determine the influences and characteristics of each genre of popular music. Describe the evolution of pop music throughout the last century. The first stirrings of popular or pop music—any genre of music that appeals to a wide audience or subculture—began in the late 19th century, with discoveries by Thomas Edison and Emile Berliner. In 1877, Edison discovered that sound could be reproduced using a strip of tinfoil wrapped around a rotating metal cylinder.

The flat discs were cheaper and easier to produce than were the cylinders they replaced, enabling the mass production of sound recordings. This would have a huge impact on the popular music industry, enabling members of the middle class to purchase technology that was previously available only to an elite few. Berliner founded the Berliner Gramophone Company to manufacture his discs, and he encouraged popular operatic singers such as Enrico Caruso and Dame Nellie Melba to record their music using his system.

Opera singers were the stars of the 19th century, and their music generated most of the sheet music sales in the United States. Although the gramophone was an exciting new development, it would take 20 years for disc recordings to rival sheet music in commercial importance Shepherd, 2003. In the late 19th century, the lax copyright laws that existed in the United States at the beginning of the century were strengthened, providing an opportunity for composers, singers, and publishers to work together to earn money by producing as much music as possible.

Whereas classical artists were exalted for their individuality and expected to differ stylistically from other classical artists, popular artists were praised for conforming to the tastes of their intended audience. The Tin Pan Alley tradition of song publishing continued throughout the first half of the 20th century with the show tunes and soothing ballads of Irving Berlin, Cole Porter, and George Gershwin, and songwriting teams of the early 1950s, such as Jerry Leiber and Mike Stoller.

By hiring songwriters to compose music based on public demand and mainstream tastes, the Tin Pan Alley publishers introduced the concept of popular music as we know it. During the early days of its development, the gramophone was viewed as a scientific novelty that posed little threat to sheet music because of its poor sound quality.

However, as inventors improved various aspects of the device, the sales of gramophone records began to affect sheet music sales. The Copyright Act of 1911 had imposed a royalty on all records of copyrighted musical works to compensate for the loss in revenue to composers and authors.

New Orleans Style and the Writing of American Jazz History

This loss became even more prominent during the mid-1920s, when improvements in electrical recording drastically increased sales of gramophones and gramophone records. The greater range and sensitivity of the electrical broadcasting microphone revolutionized gramophone recording to such an extent that sheet music sales plummeted.

From the very beginning, the record industry faced challenges from new technology. Composers and publishers could deal with the losses caused by an increase in gramophone sales because of the provisions made in the Copyright Act.

However, when radio broadcasting emerged in the early 1920s, both gramophone sales and sheet-music sales began to suffer. Radio was an affordable medium that enabled listeners to experience events as they took place.

This development was a threat to the entire recording industry, which began to campaign for, and was ultimately granted, the right to collect license fees from broadcasters. With the license fees in place, the recording industry eventually began to profit from the new technology. An improvisational form of music that was primarily instrumental, jazz incorporated a variety of styles, including African rhythms, gospel, and blues. During this time, jazz music began to take on a big band style, combining elements of ragtime, Black spirituals, blues, and European music.

These big band orchestras used an arranger to limit improvisation by assigning parts of a piece of music to various band members. Although improvisation was allowed during solo performances, the format became more structured, resulting in the swing style of jazz that became popular in the 1930s.

As the decade progressed, social attitudes toward racial segregation relaxed and big bands became more racially integrated. At the heart of jazz, the blues was a creation of former Black slaves who adapted their African musical heritage to the American environment. Dealing with themes of personal adversity, overcoming hard luck, and other emotional turmoil, the blues is a 12-bar musical form with a call-and-response format between the singer and his guitar.

Originating in the Mississippi Delta, just upriver from New Orleans, blues music was exemplified in the work of W. Unlike jazz, the blues did not spread significantly to the Northern states until the late 1930s and 1940s. Once Southern migrants introduced the blues to urban Northern cities, the music developed into distinctive regional styles, ranging from the jazz-oriented Kansas City blues to the swing-based West Coast blues.

Chicago blues musicians such as Muddy Waters were the first to electrify the blues through the use of electric guitars and to blend urban style with classic Southern blues. The electric guitar, first produced by Adolph Rickenbacker in 1931, changed music by intensifying the sound and creating a louder volume that could cut through noise in bars and nightclubs Rickenbacker, 2010.

By focusing less on shouting, singers could focus on conveying more emotion and intimacy in their performances. This electrified form of blues provided the foundations of rock and roll. Muddy Waters was one of the most famous Chicago blues musicians. The 1920s through the 1950s is considered the golden age of radio.

During this time, the number of licensed radio stations in the United States exploded from five in 1921 to over 600 by 1925 Salmon, 2010. Able to transmit music nationwide, rural radio stations broadcasted local music genres that soon gained popularity across the country. Technology Progresses Technological advances during the 1940s made it even easier for people to listen to their favorite music and for artists to record it.

The introduction of the reel-to-reel tape recorder paved the way for several innovations that would transform the music industry. The first commercially available tape recorders were monophonic, meaning that they only had one track on which to record sound onto magnetic tape. This may seem limiting today, but at the time it allowed for exciting innovations.

By the time four-track and eight-track recorders became readily available in the 1960s, musicians no longer had to play together in the same room; they could record each of their individual parts and combine them into a finished recording.

While the reel-to-reel recorders were in the early stages of development, families listened to records on their gramophones. The 78 revolutions per minute rpm disc had been the accepted recording medium an introduction to the history of breakthroughs in american jazz in new orleans many years despite the necessity of changing the disc every 5 minutes.

First Notes: New Orleans and the Early Roots of Jazz

In 1948, Columbia Records perfected the 12-inch 33 rpm long-playing LP disc, which could play up to 25 minutes per side and had a lower level of surface noise than the earlier and highly breakable shellac discs Lomax, 2003. The 33 rpm discs became the standard form for full albums and would dominate the recorded music industry until the advent of the compact disc CD. During the 1940s, a mutually beneficial alliance between sound recording and radio existed.

Artists such as Frank Sinatra and Ella Fitzgerald profited from radio exposure. Until this time, music had primarily been recorded for adults, but the popularity of Sinatra and his contemporaries revealed an entirely untapped market: The postwar boom of the 1930s and early 1940s provided many teenagers spending money for records.

Radio airplay helped to promote and sell records and the recording artists themselves, which in turn stabilized the recording industry. The near riots caused by the appearance of New Jersey crooner Frank Sinatra in concert paved the way for mass hysteria among Elvis Presley and Beatles fans during the rock and roll era. The Advent of Rock and Roll New technology continued to develop in the 1950s with the introduction of television.

The new medium spread rapidly, primarily because of cheaper mass-production costs and war-related improvements in technology.

The radio industry adapted by focusing on music, joining forces with the recording industry to survive. In an effort to do so, it became somewhat of a promotional tool.

Stations became more dependent on recorded music to fill airtime, and in 1955 the Top 40 format was born. Playlists for radio stations were based on popularity usually the Billboard Top 40 singles chartand a popular song might be played as many as 30 or 40 times a day. Radio stations began to influence record sales, which resulted in increased competition for spots on the playlist.

This ultimately resulted in payola —the illegal practice of receiving payment from a record company for broadcasting a particular song on the radio. The payola scandal came to a head in the 1960s, when Cleveland, Ohio, DJ Alan Freed and eight other disc jockeys were accused of taking money for airplay. King surged in popularity among White and Black teenagers alike.

Nonetheless, there was a considerable amount of crossover among audiences. Although banned from some stations, others embraced the popular new music.

Taking its name from a blues slang term for sex, the music obtained instant notoriety, gaining widespread support among teenage music fans and widespread dislike among the older generation History Of Rock.

Frenetic showmen Little Richard and Chuck Berry were early pioneers of rock and roll, and their wild stage performances became characteristic of the genre. As the integration of White and Black individuals progressed in the 1950s with the repeal of segregation laws and the initiation of the civil rights movement, aspects of Black culture, including music, became more widely accepted by many White individuals.

However, it was the introduction of a White man who sang songs written by Black musicians that helped rock and roll really spread across state and racial lines.

  • Research a technological development that took place during this time that influenced pop music—for example, the development of the electric guitar and its influence on rock and roll;
  • Records were created especially for discos, and record companies churned out tunes that became huge hits on the dance floor;
  • With their twanging electric guitars and glossy harmonies, the surf groups sang of girls, beaches, and convertible cars cruising along the West Coast;
  • The groups were aggressively marketed to teen audiences;
  • The Advent of Rock and Roll New technology continued to develop in the 1950s with the introduction of television.

The reaction Presley inspired among hordes of adolescent girls—screaming, crying, rioting—solidified his reputation as the first true rock and roll icon. This situation changed almost overnight with the arrival of British pop phenomenon the Beatles. Combining elements of skiffle—a type of music played on rudimentary instruments, such as banjos, guitars, or homemade instruments—doo-wop, and soul, the four mop-haired musicians from Liverpool, England, created a genre of music known as Merseybeatnamed after the River Mersey.

When the Beatles arrived in New York in 1964, they were met by hundreds of reporters and police officers and thousands of fans.

Their appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show a few days later was the largest audience for an American television program, with approximately one in three Americans 74 million tuning in Gould, 2007.

During their first appearance on The Ed Sullivan Show, the Stones were lewd and vulgar, prompting host Ed Sullivan to denounce their behavior although he privately acknowledged that the band had received the most enthusiastic applause he had ever seen Ed Sullivan. The British Invasion transformed rock and roll into the all-encompassing genre of rock, sending future performers in two different directions: Wikimedia Commons — public domain.

The branching out of rock and roll continued in several other directions throughout the 1960s. Surf musicembodied by artists such as the Beach Boys, Jan and Dean, and Dick Dale, celebrated the aspects of youth culture in California.

New Orleans Not Your Typical American City

With their twanging electric guitars and glossy harmonies, the surf groups sang of girls, beaches, and convertible cars cruising along the West Coast. In Detroit, some Black performers were developing a sound that would have crossover appeal with both Black and White audiences. Producer and songwriter Berry Gordy Jr. Capitalizing on the 1960s girl-group craze, Gordy produced hits by the Marvelettes, Martha and the Vandellas, and, most successfully, Diana Ross and the Supremes.

For his bands, he created a slick, polished image designed to appeal to the American mainstream. In the late 1960s, supporters of the civil rights movement—along with feminists, environmentalists, and Vietnam War protesters—were gravitating toward folk music, which would become the sound of social activism.

Broadly referring to music that is passed down orally through the generations, folk music retained an unpolished, amateur quality that inspired participation and social awareness. Carrying on the legacy of the 1930s labor activist Woody Guthrie, singer-songwriters such as Joan Baez; Peter, Paul, and Mary; and Bob Dylan sang social protest songs about civil rights, discrimination against Black Americans, and the Cuban Missile Crisis.

Having earned himself a reputation as a political spokesperson, Dylan was lambasted by traditional folk fans for playing an electric guitar at the 1965 Newport Folk Festival. However, his attempt to reach a broader crowd inspired the folk rock genre, pioneered by the Los Angeles band the Byrds PBS. Protest music in the 1960s was closely aligned with the hippie culture, in which some viewed taking drugs as a form of personal expression and free speech. Artists such as Jimi Hendrix, Jefferson Airplane, the Grateful Dead, and the Doors believed that the listening experience could be enhanced using mind-altering drugs Rounds, 2007.

This spirit of freedom and protest culminated in the infamous Woodstock festival in the summer of 1969, although the subsequent deaths of many of its stars from drug overdoses cast a shadow over the psychedelic culture. From Glam Rock to Punk After the Vietnam War ended, college students began to settle down and focus on careers and families. Musically, this ideological shift resulted in the creation of glam rockan extravagant, self-indulgent form of rock that incorporated flamboyant costumes, heavy makeup, and elements of hard rock and pop.