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The history of the lance of longinus in the spear of destiny by trevor ravenscroft

The lance also featured prominently in subsequent Crusader battles and played a significant role in several legends surrounding Jesus' ongoing miracles.

Holy Lance

The focus of much popular veneration, the spear eventually disappeared under mysterious circumstances. More recently, it has been the subject of much intrigue and debate in occult circles, including Adolf Hitler 's alleged interest in the spear.

Biblical account The lance is mentioned only in the Gospel of John 19: The gospel states that the Romans planned to break Jesus' legs, a practice known as crurifragium, which was a method of hastening the death during a crucifixion. Just before they did so, they realized he was already dead and that there was no reason to break his legs. To make sure he was dead, a soldier extra-Biblical tradition gives this man the name Longinus stabbed him in the side: Roman Catholics generally understand a deeper meaning in this event.

They see it representing the Church and more specifically, the sacraments of Baptism and the Eucharist issuing from the side of Christ, just as Eve was taken from the side of Adam. The earliest mention of a relic preserved as the Holy Lance is in the account of the pilgrim Antoninus of Piacenza, about 570 C.

This lance-point, embedded in an iconwas obtained in 1244 C. Longinus The name of the soldier who pierced Christ's side is not given in the Gospel of John, but in the oldest known references to the legend, the apocryphal Gospel of Nicodemus appended to late manuscripts of the fourth century Acts of Pilate, the soldier is identified with a centurion and called Logginus or Longinus making the spear's "correct" Latin name Lancea Longini.

  • When the city councilors discovered this they asked for the Reichskleinodien back but were refused;
  • After contacting most of the members of the alleged expedition and others involved, including Hitler Youth Leader Artur Axmann, Buechner became convinced the claims were true;
  • Feather also stated in the same documentary that an iron pin—long claimed to be a nail from the crucifixion, hammered into the blade and set off by tiny brass crosses—is "consistent" in length and shape with a first century C;
  • Sir John Mandeville declared in 1357, that he had seen the blade of the Holy Lance both at Paris and at Constantinople, and that the latter was a much larger relic than the former;
  • Biblical account The lance is mentioned only in the Gospel of John 19;
  • Another copy was given to the Hungarian king at the same time.

Crucifixion miniature, Rabula Gospels, with the legend "Loginos. This is one of the earliest records of the name, if the inscription is not a later addition. The text is Syriac, the lettering Greek. There is a historical figure named Gaius Cassius Longinus, one of the conspirators responsible for the death of Gaius Julius Caesar died March 15, 44 B. Another "Longinus" is credited with the authorship of the treatise On the Sublime.

Roman names held little variety, especially among members of the same family. Various relics claimed to be the Holy Lance There have been many relics that are claimed to be the Holy Lance, or parts of it. No actual lance is known until the pilgrim St. Antoninus of Piacenza 570 C. A mention of the lance also occurs in the so-called Breviarius at the church of the Holy Sepulchre. The presence in Jerusalem of this important relic is attested by Cassiodorus c. As for the larger portion of the lance, Arculpus claimed he saw it at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre around 670 C.

Some claim that the larger relic had been conveyed to Constantinople sometime during the eighth century, possibly at the same time as the Crown of Thorns. At any rate, its presence at Constantinople seems to be clearly attested by various pilgrims, particularly Russians, and, though it was deposited in various churches in succession, it seems possible to trace it and distinguish it from the relic of the point.

Sir John Mandeville declared in 1357, that he had seen the blade of the Holy Lance both at Paris and at Constantinople, and that the latter was a much larger relic than the former.

Whatever the Constantinople relic was, it fell into the hands of the Turks, and in 1492, under circumstances minutely described in Pastor's History of the Popes. At this time great doubts as to its authenticity were felt at Rome, as Johann Burchard records, [4] because of the presence of other rival lances in Paris the point that had been separated from the lanceNuremberg see "Vienna lance" belowand Armenia see "Etschmiadzin lance" below.

In the mid 1700s, Benedict XIV states that he obtained from Paris an exact drawing of the point of the lance, and that in comparing it with the larger relic in St.

  1. The one with perhaps the best claim, or at least the oldest provenance is in the Hofburg Museum in Vienna, Austria. The Mark of the Beast.
  2. Perhaps most importantly, skeptics can rightly point to the failure of the third Reich, even before Hitler lost the spear, as evidence that any power the spear had was strictly in the owner's mind.
  3. Just before they did so, they realized that Jesus was already dead and that there was no reason to break his legs.
  4. When the French Revolutionary army approached Nuremberg in the spring of 1796 the city councilors decided to remove the Reichskleinodien to Vienna for safe keeping.
  5. There was no need to break his bones. As you can see there is quite a lot of mystery, interest and intrigue associated with the Lance of Longinus.

Peter's he was satisfied that the two had originally formed one blade. Echmiadzin lance The lance currently in Echmiadzin, Armeniawas discovered during the First Crusade. In 1098, the crusader Peter Bartholomew reported that he had a vision in which St. Andrew told him that the Holy Lance was buried in St. Peter's Cathedral in Antioch. After much digging in the cathedral, a lance was discovered. This was considered a miracle by the crusaders, who were able to rout the Muslim army besieging the city and decisively capture Antioch.

Some medieval scholars for example, Raynaldi and the Bollandists believed that this lance afterward fell into the hands of the Turks and was in fact the lance that Bayazid II sent to Pope Innocent and is now in the Vatican. This was based on the belief that this was the lance of Constantine the Great which enshrined a nail used for the Crucifixion. In 1273, it was first used in the coronation ceremony.

An Ancient Empire In Today's World

In 1424, Sigismund had a collection of relics, including the lance, moved from his capital in Prague to his birth place, Nuremberg, and decreed them to be kept there forever. This collection was called the Reichskleinodien or Imperial Regalia.

When the French Revolutionary army approached Nuremberg in the spring of 1796 the city councilors decided to remove the Reichskleinodien to Vienna for safe keeping. When the city councilors discovered this they asked for the Reichskleinodien back but were refused. As part of the imperial regalia it was kept in the Schatzkammer Imperial treasury in Vienna and was known as the lance of Saint Maurice.

Currently the Spear is held in the Schatzkammer Imperial treasury. Robert Feather, an English metallurgist and technical engineering writer, tested the lance in January 2003.

In the opinion of Feather and other academic experts, the likeliest date of the spearhead is the seventh century C. Feather also stated in the same documentary that an iron pin—long claimed to be a nail from the crucifixion, hammered into the blade and set off by tiny brass crosses—is "consistent" in length and shape with a first century C.

Other lances Another lance has been preserved at Krakow, Polandsince at least the 1200s. However, German records indicate that it was a copy of the Vienna lance.

Emperor Henry II had it made with a small sliver of the original lance. Another copy was given to the Hungarian king at the same time. Modern legends about the lance The "Spear of Destiny" is a name given to the Holy Lance in various stories that attribute mystical powers to it.

Many of these have originated in recent times and several popular New Age and conspiracy theory books have popularized the legend of the spear. At the end of the war, the spear came into the hands of U. According to legend, losing the spear would result in death, and that was fulfilled when Hitler committed suicide. He found it to be a hostile and evil spirit, which he sometimes referred to as the Antichristthough that is open to interpretation.

He never actually referred to the spear as spiritually controlled, but rather as intertwined with all of humankind's ambitions. In 1979, Hartmann allegedly recovered the treasures.

Bernhart presented Buechner with the log from this expedition as well as pictures of the objects recovered, claiming that after the Spear of Destiny was recovered, it was hidden somewhere in Europe by a Nazi secret society.

After contacting most of the members of the alleged expedition and others involved, including Hitler Youth Leader Artur Axmann, Buechner became convinced the claims were true. This is referred to as the Dolorous Stroke that lays waste to three kingdoms.

The Holy Lance has appeared many times since then, in the continuity of DC comics. The mental impressions of Hitler have affected the spear, causing those who hold it act evilly. The Holy Lance is central to the 2004 movie The Librarian: Quest for the Spear and to the 2005 movie, Constantine, where the angel Gabriel tries to use it to summon the devil's son, Mammon out of the body of a possessed earthly host.

The Spear of Destiny is a central plot device of the 1992 iD Software video game of the same name in which an Allied soldier, BJ Blazkowicz works to liberate the spear from Hitler's control.

Lawhead wrote the historical fiction novel about the Holy Lance titled, The Iron Lance, the first of a trilogy of novels about Christian relics and the period of the crusades trilogy title The Celtic Crusades.

Lance of Longinus

The spear appears in The Last Vampire: Creatures of Forever by Christopher Pike, as a weapon that can be used by both good and evil. References Buechner, Howard A. Pirates and the Lost Templar Fleet: The Lost Books of the Bible. The Spear of Destiny. Ravenscroft, Trevor and Tim Wallace-Murphy. The Mark of the Beast: The Continuing Story of the Spear of Destiny.