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Justice is the foundation of society and government by jose rizal

Rolando M Gripaldo 1: Traditional approach, Part I, Section 1. For Rizal, the Philippines as a Spanish province 2 should be treated as such and the reformists should work for its cultural and political assimilation.

Rizal the Social Critic

Rizal wanted reforms for his country. He wanted the Spaniards to treat the Filipinos as their equals. He was falsely accused of betraying the Spanish nation, for he was misunderstood to have placed more emphasis on developing a Filipino national sentiment that ran counter to the interests of Spain. Rizal defended himself superbly albeit unsuccessfully. He sought only autonomy— freedom and not independence, since he believed a country could be independent without being free. He had always desired democratic rights for the Philippines coupled with the unity of the Filipino people through education.

If perchance independence should come, it was because, according to Rizal, the people deserved it and Mother Spain would willingly grant them independence, especially when she was convinced that her future lay in Morocco. In the end, however, that is, after he was sentenced to die, Rizal realized the absurdity of remaining a Filipino Spaniard. In this context, one may indeed say that Rizal was first a Filipino Spaniard before becoming a pure Filipino.

What is interesting in this triumvirate is the fact that the friars were more powerful than any of the other two groups. In a sense they were the power behind the throne. The political elite appeared to be their puppets, the military elite their auxiliaries, and the natives or indios their bondsmen. In a theocratic rule, which is otherwise called frailocracy, civil rights and liberties were suppressed, education reduced to blind fanaticism, and Filipino enlightenment feared.

The friars enriched themselves in spite of their vow of poverty, sired children despite their vow of celibacy, treated the natives as belonging to an inferior race, and determined the political fate of government officials who refused to cooperate with them. They had an awesome authority without accountability.

As a consequence of this rule, Rizal observed that the natives dedicated themselves blindly to the salvation of their own individual souls, tolerated political oppression and religious abuses, allowed themselves to be exploited and humiliated, lacked sentiment of nationhood, and pursued personal goals or interests.

As a Filipino Spaniard Fernandez 1980, 2; Constantino 1970, 114-18, 142Rizal believed that the salvation of the Filipinos lay in influencing public opinion in Spain to adopt reforms in the Philippines. A campaign must be waged in Spain by a group of expatriates, i. To quote Paciano Guerrero 1974, 82-83; Alzona 1964, 14: It should be more convenient for you to be there together with our countrymen who can show you around until you can get the hang of things.

During the Propaganda Period, Rizal tried to unite the Filipino expatriates. His success on this matter was limited. He found the Filipinos in Madrid excessively individualistic. Instead of uniting themselves to fight for a worthy patriotic cause, justice is the foundation of society and government by jose rizal wasted their time in trifles. Rafael Palma 1949, 51 remarked: The young men slept to midday, spent the afternoon playing cards, and amused themselves with women in the evening.

They regarded going to class as out of fashion, and the expression of any patriotic sentiment as quixotic. With the exception of one or two, they did not think of politics nor of provoking discussion of the Philippine situation and of the liberal reforms that the country needed.

Jose Maria Sison

He had likewise a rift with Marcelo H. Through the machinations of Lete, the Pilarists and the Rizalists could not obtain the two-thirds majority vote needed for leadership. He answered the attacks against the Filipinos and refuted the undue praise given to the work of the friars of his country.

Rizal had realized that the salvation of the Filipinos did not lie in Spain but in the Philippines itself. He had already resolved the issue of revolution in his second novel El filibusterismo, which came off the press in 1891. The revolution for patriotic causes would be resorted to only as a last recourse but in no way should it be used for personal revenge.

He Alzona 1961, 44 wrote his friend Ferdinand Blumentritt: A peaceful struggle shall always be a dream, for Spain will never learn the lesson of her former South American colonies. But, under the present circumstances, we do not want separation from Spain.

All that we ask is greater attention, better education, better government employees, one or two representatives, and greater security for persons and property.

In June 1887, however, Rizal appeared a separatist. In writing Blumentritt, he Guerrero 1974, 286 said: I can assure you that I have no desire to take part in conspiracies which seem to me premature and risky in the extreme. But if the government drives us to it, that is to say, when there remains to us no other hope than to seek our ruin in war, when the Filipinos shall prefer to die rather than to endure their miseries any longer, then I too shall advocate violent means.

It is Spain who must choose between peace and ruin, because it is an evident fact, well known to all, that we are patient, much too resigned, and peace loving.

Dr. Jose P. Laurel’s thoughts

But everything comes to an end in this life; there is nothing eternal in this world, and this applies also to our patience. In June 1888, he Guerrero 1974, 287; Alzona 1961, 172 wrote Blumentritt: I believe it is too late; the Filipinos have already lost the hopes they place in Spain! In October of that year, he Guerrero 1974, 287 wrote Blumentritt again: Those who deport or imprison any individual without a right to do so can only expect our hatred, and, if we cannot avenge ourselves, our sons and, if not, our grandsons will do so!

If to make my country happy I had to act vilely, I would refuse to do so because I am sure that what is built on sand will collapse sooner or later.

If it were impossible to overcome our enemies now, another day will dawn, another day will come, for there must be a God of justice, otherwise we would be atheists.

One year before the publication of the Fili, Rizal had already discovered the foundation of freedom and independence. He believed it was intelligence or reason. I believe that only intelligence can redeem us, in the material and in the spiritual. I still persist in this belief. They must be taught civic virtues. Enlightenment, in a nutshell, constituted one great theme of the Fili. When he was tried of rebellion, Rizal incorporated these views in his defense. His philosophy of nonviolence likewise followed that pattern, except that it was hatched not so much in peninsular Spain but in France, Belgium, and Germany where Rizal completed and published his two novels.

Man must be free to realize his natural tendency toward the full development of his intellectual and moral potentialities. The attempt to repress these potentialities would disfigure him. This is one sense of freedom, which means full self-realization, that Rizal talked about.

  • Social justice must be founded on the recognition of necessary interdependence among… diverse units of society and of the protection that should be equally and evenly extended to all groups… It is neither communism nor despotism nor atomism nor anarchy, but the humanization of laws and the equalization of social and economic forces of the State;
  • The translation is by Alzona 1972b, 160-62;
  • Philipines Free Press 28 December-4 January;
  • The Propaganda movement, 1880-1895:

In this sense, man can be held responsible for his actions. Since the government and the friars tried to stifle the development of his mental and moral faculties, he must not therefore be entirely blamed for his miserable condition. He must, however, be partly blamed for tolerating and allowing such a condition to continue.

To Rizal, the disfigured man is corrupt, lacks the sentiment of national unity, and works only for his own good. His consciousness is limited; he does not have a consciousness of nationhood. He must transcend religious fanaticism, cultivate his intellect, love his fellow Filipinos, have racial pride, and possess that dignity and self-esteem worthy of a man.

Jose Rizal's fight for justice sparked call for freedom

This is the 1: The truly free man is the one deserving of independence. There exists a striking relationship between the people and the government. Rizal Pascual 1962, 223; Fores-Ganzon 1967, 2: Like people, like government. Rizal believed a corrupt people could only produce a corrupt government. For as long as man wallowed in ignorance, fanaticism, and moral depravity, it was necessary to enlighten him. Education was the only course towards this goal. As Rizal Craig 1912, 116; Alzona 1972a, 348 said: I place as a prior condition [to liberty] the education of the people, that by means of instruction and industry our country may have an individuality of its own and make itself worthy of these liberties.

I have recommended in my writings the study of civic virtues, without which there is no redemption. Rizal believed that education need not be formal.

The home or an association could do the function of enlightening the people. But he certainly would wish to have formal education. In the Noli, he Guerrero 1973, 205; Pascual 1962, 258 argued through the provincial governor: Show us the schools of a nation and we shall tell you what kind of a nation it is.

The Filipinos must rely upon themselves and in that context Rizal Alzona 1972a, 309 in Manila founded La Liga Filipina whose aims were: Unfortunately, Rizal was arrested and banished to Dapitan. But Rizal did not waver in his convictions. For as long as the people were unenlightened, Rizal Alzona 1972a, 349 thought that a revolution, if it succeeded, would be a temporary triumph and very dangerous in the hands of the ignorant masses, a view which he may have learned in Paris from the French Revolution.

He preferred reforms that came from above since he believed they were more fruitful than reforms that came from below which he considered shaky and unreliable. He admitted that Filipino enlightenment might lead to a revolution, but it need not be the case.

In fact, he was more inclined to believe the latter. All these indicated that Rizal deeply believed his martyrdom would help much in politically justice is the foundation of society and government by jose rizal the people in the same way that the martyrdom of three Filipino secular priests Mariano Gomez, Jose Burgos, and Jacinto Zamora had helped much in politically enlightening him. Another version of this paper was published in 1996-97 in the Philippines Free Press.

Rizal used Patria Fatherland to refer to his native land. The translation is by Alzona 1972b, 160-62. Rizal must have known the success of the Cavite revolutionaists from his sister Trinidad and from Josephine Bracken, who visited him at Fort Santiago. I agree with Rafael Palma 1949 rather than with Leon Ma.