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A social studies report on nathaniel gorham

What emerged was the most extensive documentation of the powers of government and the rights of the people that the world had ever witnessed. These state constitutions displayed a remarkable uniformity.

Seven attached a prefatory Declaration of Rights, and all contained the same civil and criminal rights. New York incorporated the entire Declaration of Independence into its constitution. The primary purpose of these declarations and bills was to outline the objectives of government: All accepted the notion that the legislative branch should be preeminent, but, at the very same time, endorsed the concept that the liberty of the people was in danger from the corruption of the representatives.

And this despite the fact that the representatives were installed by the election of the people. Thus, each state constitution embraced the notion of short terms of office for elected representatives along with recall, rotation, and term limits.

The Second Continental Congress also created the first continental-wide system of governance. The Articles of Confederation created a nation of pre-existing states rather than a government over individuals.

Thus, the very idea of a Bill of Rights was irrelevant because the Articles did not entail a government over individuals. Amendments required the unanimous approval of all thirteen state legislatures. These two directives produced two opposite and rival situations: Several statesmen, especially George Washingtonwere concerned that the idea of an American mind that had emerged during the war with Britain was about to disappear and the Articles of Confederation were inadequate to foster the development of an American character.

And there was nothing that the union government could do about it because the Articles left matters of a social studies report on nathaniel gorham and commerce to the states. The solution, concluded Madisonwas to create an extended republic, in which a variety of opinions, passions, and interests would check and balance each other, supported by a governmental framework that endorsed a separation of powers between the branches of the general government. Matters changed, however, in 1786.

A social studies report on nathaniel gorham

The people have the right to choose the form of government under which they shall live and to install such government as they deem appropriate to secure their liberty, security, and happiness.

The Selection of the Delegates Madison and Washington agreed that the principles of the Revolution of 1776 were in danger due to a weak continental arrangement and overbearing, unjust, and reckless state legislatures. But how could they take advantage of the opportunity provided by the Annapolis recommendation? How was such a bold proposal to be put into effect?

Madison persuaded the Virginia Legislature to implement the challenge of the Annapolis Convention and invite all the other states to also reconsider the status of the Articles.

Pennsylvania selected eight delegates: Thomas Mifflin was elected as the leader of the delegation; he was speaker of the Pennsylvania Assembly.

All the delegates from Pennsylvania resided in Philadelphia. Former Governor Alexander Martin was chosen to lead the North Carolina delegation, but left before the signing. In 1802 he was killed in a duel. Howard Christy gives this central signing honors in his commemoration of the Constitution.

  1. The former forbids Congress from ever regulating the slave trade and prohibits Congress from discouraging the trade by means of a tax or tariff.
  2. Many delegates over the four months of deliberation often thought that it was a setting sun. This is a vital question and deserves special coverage.
  3. Another issue that emerged in Act Three is the slavery question.

Jacob Broom and Richard Bassett. Other states, however, were more cautious and wanted the existing Congress to address the legitimacy of such a gathering. The recommendatory act of Congress reads thus: New York was the first state to act after the Congressional endorsement. The New York delegation was not particularly prominent at the Convention. Yates and Lansing left in early July, just prior to the passage of the Connecticut Compromise, and the 32-year-old Hamiltonwho lost his life at age 49 in a duel with Aaron Burr, was far more influential in securing the adoption of a social studies report on nathaniel gorham Constitution in 1788 than in its framing in 1787.

Four days before the Convention began, Connecticut elected three delegates: William Samuel Johnsonwho learned of his appointment to the Presidency of Columbia College on his way to Philadelphia, Roger Shermanwho signed both the Declaration and the Articlesand 42-year-old Oliver Ellsworth who had the reputation of talking to himself and being a chain chewer of snuff. He was joined by 60-year-old bachelor, Daniel of St. New Hampshire was short of cash so John Langdon funded the expenses for himself and Nicholas Gilman ; they arrived at the Convention on July 23, after the main debate over the Connecticut Compromise was completed and yet just in time for a one-week recess.

Rhode Island, the thirteenth state, declined to send delegates. Alexis de Tocqueville marveled at the work of the American Founders: Madisonin Federalist 37, indicates the uniqueness of the Founding: And Hamiltonin Federalist 1, suggested that this was a unique event in the history of the world; finally government was going to be established by reflection and choice rather than force and fraud.

  • Thus, the very idea of a Bill of Rights was irrelevant because the Articles did not entail a government over individuals;
  • Another issue that emerged in Act Three is the slavery question;
  • In 1802 he was killed in a duel;
  • Another issue that emerged in Act Three is the slavery question;
  • The recommendatory act of Congress reads thus:

And what is also unique is the fact that the framers were relatively youngwell educatedand politically experienced. Like the Declaration of Independencethe Constitution was written by delegates immersed in 1 the writings of Aristotle, Cicero, Locke, and Montesquieu, and 2 a world of political experience at both the state and continental level.

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Both basic documents were written in Independence HallPhiladelphia, and thirty signers of the Declaration in 1776 played a vital part in the creation and adoption of the Constitution1787-1789. How to Read the Convention Very few of the delegates selected were present at the appointed time for the meeting of the Grand Convention in Philadelphia on May 14, 1787.

All the Virginia delegates were present, however, and fully settled into their accommodations.

  1. The delegates also agreed that the deliberations would be kept secret.
  2. Far from the wholly national republican Virginia Plan being accepted, as we might very well anticipate when the curtain fell at the end of Act One, the delegates from Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, New York, and Mr. It had been clear for four months that until the mode of election was settled, no progress could be made on 1 length of term, 2 the issue of re-eligibility, and 3 the powers of the President.
  3. On the last day of the Convention, September 17 , Benjamin Franklin looked at the chair occupied by Washington and declared the sun enshrined on the chair to be a rising sun. The first order of business was to elect a President, and George Washington was the obvious choice.
  4. Several delegates echo this theme and the Convention decides to move beyond the exclusively national or federal paradigms. On Monday, January 21 , the start of the third week, they turned their attention to Article 1, Section 8 , namely, the powers of Congress clause and concluded on Saturday, January 26 with a discussion of Section 9.

During this waiting period, the Virginia delegates caucused with each other in an attempt to set the tone for the deliberations of the Convention and paid courtesy calls on prominent members of Philadelphia society. On May 25a quorum of seven states was secured. The first order of business was to elect a President, and George Washington was the obvious choice. William Jacksonyet another immigrant at the Convention, was elected Secretary of the Convention and he recorded the propositions and amendments as well as the vote a social studies report on nathaniel gorham.

James Madison took extensive Notes of the proceedings and although some scholars have questioned their authenticity and completeness, they remain the primary source for reproducing the conversations at the Convention. Other delegates kept specific notes on certain days, there are letters back home to friends and loved ones, there are urgent bills sent for immediate payment that augment, and there are personal diaries, some more complete than others.

The delegates also agreed that the deliberations would be kept secret. The case in favor of secrecy was that the issues at hand were so important that honest discourse needed to be encouraged and delegates ought to feel free to speak their mind, and change their mind, as they saw fit.

The merits and demerits of the secrecy rule have been a subject of considerable debate throughout American history. Under the wholly federal Articles of Confederationonly the states are represented and the central government was restrained to the exercise of expressly delegated powers. And under the state republican constitutions, the governor had very little authority, and the elected representatives were kept under close scrutiny.

This wholly national republican plan is debated, and amended, over the next two weeksand the main features are adopted by the delegates in mid June over two alternatives: Hamiltonamong other things, envisioned a President for life.

Act Two portrays the Convention in crisis, in the sense that the delegates were at a stalemate. Far from the wholly national republican Virginia Plan being accepted, as we might very well anticipate when the curtain fell at the end of Act One, the delegates from Connecticut, New Jersey, Delaware, New York, and Mr. They argued that the Convention had exceeded the Congressional mandate because the Articles had in fact been scrapped rather than revised. Thus the Convention had violated the rule of law.

These delegates knew their Locke and Montesquieu and they relied on their own political experience which was remarkably extensive: A breakthrough occurs at the end of June when Oliver Ellsworth of Connecticut suggests that we are neither wholly national nor wholly federal but a mixture of both.

Several delegates echo this theme and the Convention decides to move beyond the exclusively national or federal paradigms. The Gerry Committee is created to explore the ramifications of this suggestion that the people be represented in the House and the states be represented in the Senate.

Act Three focuses on the debates during August over the Committee of Detail Report, especially concerning the itemization of Congressional powers. With the Connecticut Compromise in place, the delegates turned from the question of structure to the question of national and state powers. Under the Virginia Plan, Congress was empowered to do anything the States were incompetent to do. By July, that was no longer acceptable to the delegates.

Another issue that emerged in Act Three is the slavery question. This is a vital question and deserves special coverage. The former forbids Congress from ever regulating the slave trade and prohibits Congress from discouraging the trade by means of a tax or tariff. By contrast the final Constitution, limits the prohibition on Congress until 1808 and permits Congress to discourage the slave trade.

In March, 1807, President Jefferson signed into law an Act of Congress prohibiting the slave trade effective January 1, 1808, and during the 1790s Congress took specific steps to discourage the importation of Africans for the purpose of being sold into slavery. Despite all the progress that had been made on the structural role of the states and enumerating the powers of Congress, there was much work still to be done on the Presidency. The Brearley Committee came up with the idea of an Electoral College as a sensible compromise to the long and largely fruitless debates on how to elect the President.

It had been clear for four months that until the mode of election was settled, no progress could be made on 1 length of term, 2 the issue of re-eligibility, and 3 the powers of the President. The Electoral College was modeled on the Connecticut Compromise: The Committee of Style wrote the final draft of the Constitution.

It included a Preamble and an obligation of contracts clause, both written by Gouverneur Morrisand an enumeration of the powers of A social studies report on nathaniel gorham in Article I, Section 8. During the last week of the Convention the delegates added a few refinements, raised some serious concerns, and discussed what they agreed to over the four months of deliberations. And the delegates wondered whether or not the power to create a national university was implied within the meaning of the necessary and proper clause.

On the last day of the Convention, September 17Benjamin Franklin looked at the chair occupied by Washington and declared the sun enshrined on the chair to be a rising sun. Many delegates over the four months of deliberation often thought that it was a setting sun.